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These characteristics are determined by the internal spatial configurations of the quarks. The energy configuration of the quarks gives each particle its unique mass and identity.

According to theoretical predictions, the quarks inside could be tightly bound like three quarks packed inside a single proton or loosely bound like two atoms forming a molecule. It could be possible that these are not even particles. The result could show the complex interplays of known particle pairs flippantly changing their identities.

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Theorists are currently working on models to explain these new results—be it a family of four new particles or bizarre ripple effects from known particles. Either way, this study will help shape our understanding of the subatomic universe.

The LHC is in the first months of a two-year technical shutdown for maintenance and upgrades. During that time, lucky visitors can secure a place on an underground guided tour. DESI astronomers will look for ripple patterns, called baryon acoustic oscillations, in the clumping of galaxies.

Particle Containing 4 Quarks Is Confirmed for First Time - Scientific American

In their quest to discover physics beyond the Standard Model, physicists weigh the pros and cons of different search strategies. At a recent workshop on blind analysis, researchers discussed how to keep their expectations out of their results. A new result from the LHCb experiment could be an early indicator of an inconsistency in the Standard Model. With of these Z c particles in hand, the Belle team reports that the chance that its result is a statistical fluke is less than 1 in 3. No one questions the number of quarks in the latest particle. More controversial is their arrangement, which could have implications for quantum chromodynamics, the theory describing the strong force that connects quarks.

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Theorists fall primarily into two camps. One side proposes that the particle is actually a union of two ordinary particles called mesons, which contain one quark and one antiquark.

source site Other theorists have tentatively labelled the new particle a true tetraquark — four quarks stuck together tightly to form a compact ball. Within the ball, two quarks are bound together, as are two antiquarks. Such pairings do not occur in any known particle and would thus introduce new building blocks of matter — with the potential to guide computer simulations aimed at working out all the structures that quarks can form.


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Another way to test the two theories would be to look for other particles that each predicts should exist. Hoping to end the debate, researchers at BESIII are continuing to dig through data collected since their first experimental run in December and January. Depending on what they find, the unmasking of Z c may have to wait for the new, more powerful version of the Belle detector planned to come online in Liu, Z.

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