Getz and Page indicate a core proposition of event tourism [ 9 ]: Events can attract tourists and others, such as sponsors and the media who otherwise might not visit a particular place; the spending of event tourists generates economic benefits; event tourism can be leveraged for maximum value in combatting seasonality of demand, spreading tourism geographically, and assisting in other forms of urban and economic development; portfolios of events can be designed for maximum impact, especially by appealing to multiple target segments.
Events can create positive images for the destination and help brand or reposition cities. Events animate cities, resorts, parks, urban spaces, and venues of all kinds, making them more attractive to visit and revisit, and utilizing them more efficiently. Event tourism acts as a catalyst for other forms of desired development including urban renewal, community capacity building, voluntarism, and improved marketing , thereby generating a long-term or permanent legacy.
The focus of this segment of the chapter is primarily on the destination-related issues of event tourism. The authors also present the results of the primary research and place them within the context of the previous research within this area. Cultural tourism and event tourism as its integral part should be based on the principles of sustainable tourism development. The UNESCO World Heritage and Sustainable Tourism Program represents a new approach based on dialog and stakeholder cooperation where planning for tourism and heritage management is integrated at a destination level, the natural and cultural assets are valued and protected, and appropriate tourism developed [ 10 ].
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This agenda primarily aims to sustain tourism promotion and development and rather downplays dimensions of sustainability. It confirms the view that tourism is seen as a major tool for regional and local development throughout the EU. Promotion of European destinations, i. The principles articulated for achieving a competitive and sustainable tourism throughout the EU are as follows: Take a holistic and integrated approach. Promote negative impacts, e. This Agenda…has an emphasis on small-scale, locally managed, and controlled tourism, which has a social responsibility [ 11 ].
Within the context of tourism and the tourism system, events comprise a key element in both the origin area i. Events are both animators of destination attractiveness but more fundamentally as key marketing propositions in the promotion of places, given the increasingly global competitiveness to attract visitor spending.
Recent research e. In this respect, events have a wider remit than destination-related tourism although the focus of this part of chapter is primarily on the destination-related issues of event tourism and the studies associated with this area. To be simultaneously successful in all these different areas at the level of tourist destinations requires a global approach, focused on tourist satisfaction and based on the principles of sustainable development, which is described as integrated quality management IQM. IQM model serves as a support for the activities of restructuring and repositioning of the tourism destination whose task is to ensure a higher level of quality elements in the structure of the tourism product.
Integral quality management IQM is a relatively new concept in the management of a tourist destination that developed in the s as a response to competitive pressures on both the supply and the demand side. At least three reasons can be cited to explain the late appearance of this concept [ 12 ]: A more intense pressure of the competition both on the supply and on the demand.
A delayed emergence and development of quality management in the service sector that occurred not earlier than in the s. The IQM approach implies an equal satisfaction of the needs of the visitors, the local population and everyone involved in the tourism sector.
The European Commission has conducted separate studies and has adopted the appropriate Directives, separately for the urban, coastal, and rural tourist destinations [ 14 ], taking into account their specificities, and adapting the management approach accordingly.
Urban destinations should offer all genres of music offered in urban destinations, with the repertoire mostly consisting of globally relevant authors and composers, and to a lesser degree consisting of autochthonous or locally characterized events. In the coastal area, due to the frequency of tourists of other cultural interests, the offer should be varied and of equal proportion, both popular and autochthonous.
Within rural areas tourism as well as event tourism should be developed around the autochthone qualities of the destination that is being visited, promoting a tourist offer based on autochthone elements such as folklore, classical, ecclesiastical, and entertaining music. The link between the type of tourist destination urban, coastal, rural and the genre of music events. Source: Research conducted by the authors.
In this section, the authors present a practical professional approach to the managing of events in tourism.
It should be noted that in this field, as well as in the wider context of management of destination tourism, the crucial approach is that of the stakeholder, making the use stakeholder theory unavoidable [ 16 — 18 ]. It is interesting to mention a very important study of Getz and Page [ 9 ], where the authors define the research themes on planning and managing event tourism. They state the planning and managing of event tourism as one of the key research topics. This issue primarily refers to the practical, economic-management aspect of event tourism. This is also the research focus of this segment of the chapter, with the authors agreeing with the conclusions of earlier authors about the management of tourism events being a long-term more than being a short-term issue, as well as the key importance of the stakeholder approach together with the need for a permanent and systematic long-term event management and their strategic planning [ 18 ].
Therefore, by referring to and further developing the Getz and Page view, the authors propose the following thesis: planning for a long-term or permanent legacy is overtaking short-term measures of economic impact in justifying event tourism, halo effects relate to the short-term image boost, quantum leap means using events to accelerate growth, capacity building requires consideration of cumulative, sustainable benefits, repositioning stems from the exploitation of events in rebranding a destination, and leveraging applies to a variety of methods intended to increase visitor spending and longer term trade or development gains [ 9 ].
What follows are the results of the research that will try to provide certain answers to key research questions regarding contemporary event tourism within a defined field of event tourism management. This region is particularly interesting for studying due to the fact that already with the first Tourism Development Master Plan in , it was divided into tourist clusters , the lower level strategic organizational units, which in part independently decide on the development of their tourist area, based obviously on the unambiguously defined key strategic directions for the entire region of Istria.
The research also includes a time component.
Sustainability In Tourism: A Multidisciplinary Approach
The research refers to workshops on cultural tourism held in two locations Novigrad and Umag on May 27, [ 19 ]. The workshops were conducted as part of a preaccession EU project, called Cultural tourism in Croatian Regions. It is necessary to point out that one of the co-authors of this research participated as a moderator at the mentioned workshops.
As a microarea, the tourist cluster of the northwestern Istria is being observed, together with the organization of stakeholders and tourist communities, which has the most developed strategic approach to managing event tourism in Croatia. By comparing the presented periods, a conclusion can be made about the progress in the field of event management, as well as cultural tourism in general in this area.
The cluster consists of tourist communities of the town of Umag, Buje and Novigrad, as well as the Brtonigla municipality. As a separate methodological approach, the professional experience of both authors within institutions and organizations dealing with the managing of tourist events in the explored area, especially in the cities of Umag and Novigrad, is also being emphasized at the time of the observation the base years within the research. For the purpose of this paper, only a few selected topics relating to this research field are being presented, while keeping in mind its complexity and the need for a much deeper analysis.
Source: Research conducted by the authors based on a stakeholder workshop on a Tourism cluster level , Tourism cluster of the northwestern Istria, Croatia. Generally, it can be concluded that significant progress has been made in the field of event management in the tourism cluster of the northwestern Istria, which is manifested primarily in the systematic and strategic orientation of tourism development planning, as well as event tourism, based on the cooperation of key stakeholders. This is probably the key reason for the achieved tourism results: increased tourist traffic in the pre- and postseason, a trend headed by the cluster in Istria.
However, already from this short analysis, it is obvious that there are still numerous additional opportunities for improving and developing event tourism in general, in this cluster, region and beyond, which proves that the development of tourism events is a difficult and complex process. It should be emphasized that within the presented cluster, a general consensus has been established with the event portfolios planned out in advance, and that they are based on the Tourism Development Master Plan of the entire region, and that the cluster conforms to the interests of several groups of stakeholders in particular, tourist communities, large hotel chains, small stakeholders, local politics , while the key events of the cluster are being defined and structured according to their importance, as well as the participation of individual tourist communities in their funding.
Although this model needs to be further developed and perfected, it can serve as a good example to others, as it has been proven that it has already achieved the desired effects, most of all an increase in tourist traffic within the cluster that uses this approach in relation to the other, while also increasing the strength and recognition factor of the cluster.
Some research shows that such efforts to achieve this type of consensus workshops, strategic conferences, etc.
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It is of great importance to consider the distinction of specificities, according to the already mentioned classification of urban, coastal, and rural tourist destinations. This can also serve as a guide to the possible designing of joint events coastal-rural , which has already been partially done as presented in the example of the addressed cluster.
Similarly, this should be taken into account when doing scientific research since the event portfolio, the planning of the events and their organization, is significantly different for urban destinations big cities, metropolises than it is for smaller urban and social contexts: the coastal and rural tourist destinations. Numerous authors have claimed that event tourism is a subfield of both event and tourism studies.
The field of event studies, reviewed by Getz, depicts the expanding area of event management and the wider contribution of social sciences to this interdisciplinary area of study [ 9 ]. The most comprehensive overview of key issues and research areas was presented by Getz and Page in the aforementioned study. This study covers the key research areas of cultural tourism, which include the following: Research themes on the experience and meaning of event tourism.
Additional research challenges, according to the authors of the present article, include the following: The question of small and new events. The authors of this text believe that it is important to conduct further research into different types of event portfolio. Although the classification into four basic groups of events business, festival and culture, entertainment, and sport is usually used by academics, it is debatable how precise it really is and whether it should be improved. For instance, in the here-analyzed location, the region of Istria in Croatia, gourmet events feature heavily, even though they are not included — or at least not explicitly named — in this generally accepted classification.
Furthermore, an objection to such a classification could be expected from other disciplines. Based on the review of the latest literature and on the practice of destination management, as well as on professional training in the field of destination management in the analyzed example for example, Experta Business Academy, Zagreb, [ 23 ] , a certain amount of confusion and somewhat differing views on event tourism and event management can be noticed. The need, therefore, arises for a more comprehensive and modern view on this research area, with concepts, definitions, and classifications delineated in a clearer way.
It is generally accepted that tourist boards or DMOs in some countries should use the event portfolio method as a starting point in event management. The crucial question in using this method seems to be which kind of events according to their contents, groups of events, subgroups, the targeted segments of the market, etc.
In regard to event tourism management, a consensus has been reached concerning the necessity of the stakeholder theory application. However, the key challenge to the practical application of this theory is found in the strong interaction of different stakeholders and their interests, which sometimes create synergy and sometimes breed antagonism.
In general terms, promoting additional education and organizing various creative workshops or team-building activities within the tourism destination would certainly contribute to the development of networking and synergy, and consequently improve the success of the destination.
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The first step, however, is to be rich, a higher level of awareness of the latent conflict in practice on these two fields, where it often lies without being openly spoken of, being explained away as an outcome of personal issues, or its cause being simply misunderstood. In her research role at the university, Dr. Lewis also writes proposals for international research funding.
For this, she says, you need to know two things:. You first need to identify the trend. What is the new thing that not many people know? I used SciVal for this. And second, you need collaborators. How do you find people? In our proposal on migration in the agricultural sector in Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Thailand, we have researchers from Japan, Switzerland, the Philippines and Thailand. With inspiration from her experience making batik cloths in Vietnam, and using information analytics tools such as SciVal and Scopus, Dr.
rx4empowerment.com/includes/rusk/209-gay-dating-in.php Lewis was able to identify a potential solution to the problems of tourism in Thailand that needs more research. And she could set up a multidisciplinary team that worked with local people to develop a meaningful research proposal. With their unique combination of perspectives and knowledge, the team hopes to secure funding so they can gain valuable insights into how creative tourism can make a real and lasting difference to local people. On July 5 and 6, Chulalongkorn University and Elsevier will co-host the 4th Annual Asia Research Intelligence Conference in Bangkok, bringing together more than leading research executives and administrators from the region.
The invitation-only event will focus on the power of data and science for a sustainable society. She also teaches intermediate macroeconomics and development economics on the Faculty of Economics. Her experience includes working as a financial economist of Asian Development Bank ADB in Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam and Pakistan; leading a team of international and local consultants in an ADB financial inclusion project in Thailand; and working for several commercial banks in Thailand.
Her fields of research are innovation in the banking sector, microfinance, financial inclusion and creative tourism.